The Chestnut-shouldered Petronia is a species of sparrow-like bird found in South Asia. It is found in forest and open scrub habitats. The species breeds in tree hollows often making use of the holes made be primary hole nesting birds such as barbets and woodpeckers.
It has a finer bill than typical sparrows and unlike them has no streaks on the plumage. The white double wing bar on the shoulder is diagnostic on the otherwise dull grey-brown sparrow. Males have a chestnut shoulder patch which can sometimes be hard to see. They also have a pale yellow spot on the throat in fresh plumage. Females are duller and lack the chestnut shoulder patch. The yellow spot is much reduced or lacking in females.